2024 Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg - An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …

 
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A study of the effects of the addition of various amounts of Cu to sintered NdFeB magnets" by O. Ragg et al. ... from an Nd/sub 17/-Fe/sub 76.5/-B/sub 5/-Cu/sub 1.5/ alloy by a two-step heat treatment at 1370 K and 870 K following hydrogen decrepitation (HD)-processing. …. Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg

NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), and can be …Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room …The reaction speed in the typical hydrogenation run (Fig. 1b, 1d) is limited only by the rate of the gas diffusion into the sample.When the reaction proceeds in deficiency of hydrogen (Fig. 1b) only a part of the Nd transforms into neodymium hydride NdH y as it follows from the diffraction pattern displayed in Fig. 2d.That pattern includes …High-temperature oxidation resistance of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powder is of great importance for its application in bonded magnet fields. In this work, the refinement and surface modification of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powders were integrated and achieved simultaneously. The effects of phosphoric acid, isopropyl tris-(dioctyl pyrophosphate …Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) is a suitable method for recycling sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained from electronic scrap into a coercive powder [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ... Anisotropic ...The process of hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which is used in the primary production and recycling of Nd magnets, takes place at low temperatures, even at room temperature, so that the entire microstructure decomposes only in powder form and the grain size is reduced. The rapid cooling of the strip flakes suppresses the growth of soft α-Fe branch crystal grains. The thickness of the strip flakes was about 0.25–0.35 mm. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which uses the expansion of hydrogen to break up the flakes, was followed by milling in a jet mill (JM). The particles were then accelerated to supersonic ...As noted above, the calculated Gibbs energy of reactions of individual REE with atomic hydrogen (Table 1) is strongly negative, thereby predictive of rapid chemical decrepitation of the two-phase Nd-magnet within the temperature range of interest. These reactions can be expected to take place immediately … See moreHydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ... Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very …Oct 1, 2020 · INET-3 is efficient to recover and separate Dy, Nd, and Co from NdFeB leachates. Its ΔpH 0.5 values of Fe-Dy, Dy-Nd, and Nd-Co are 0.35, 0.79, and 2.49, respectively. It is better to remove Fe 3+ by selective leaching and precipitation before Dy, Nd, and Co recovery and separation. 98% of Dy 3+ is recovered after four-stage counter-current extraction at A/O = 1:2 and equilibrium pH = 2.52. The fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets is composed of quite a few processes mainly including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet-milling, magnetic alignment and pressing, sintering and subsequent heat treatment, machining, and surface coating. ... Possible methods of recycling NdFeB-type sintered magnets using the …The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density …NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ... Step #5 Hydrogen Decrepitation While the grains are very small from strip casting, the material from strip casting comes out of the caster in sheets that must be reduced to powder in order to make magnets. The next step after this is Hydrogen Decrepitation –a process that introduces hydrogen to purposely disintegrate the magnet material. Jul 1, 2019 · Recycling of scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets as anisotropic bonded magnets via hydrogen decrepitation process. The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by…. Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. Abstract. This paper reports the room temperature hydrogen decrepitation (HD) of fully dense, 2/17-type sintered magnets based on the composition, Sm (Co 0.69 Fe 0.21 Cu 0.068 Zr 0.019) 7.49. These magnets absorb significant amounts of hydrogen over an extended period (∼48 h) at room temperature and at a pressure of 10 bar to give a …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process and re-sintering NdFeB magnet scrap recycling by processing it in hydrogen, then milling, aligning, pressing and re-sintering it [38–40] Although different methods for NdFeB magnet recycling have been reported in the literature, only one piece of technology has been applied in practice by the Urban MiningThis work could have implications with regard to the mechanism of hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets during the well-established recycling process described by Walton et al. [19] and [20]. During this process, scrap sintered NdFeB magnets are damaged in air to expose a clean surface suitable for hydrogen decrepitation. …The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand. calcium [12] and hydrogen decrepitation [1,13-19]. Many of these are under current development. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. HD process was originally designed and patented by Harris et al. (1979) as a way to Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly …Jul 14, 2000 · The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling the hydrogen ... The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand.Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. H 2 can be used to extract NdFeB magnets from the automotive scrap, however, many challenges in the recycling are presented.. The importance of design choices, having negative impact on the recycling, are investigated in this work, so can be avoided. • Higher Dy additions slow down the kinetics of the hydrogen decrepitation …A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …Oct 1, 2020 · INET-3 is efficient to recover and separate Dy, Nd, and Co from NdFeB leachates. Its ΔpH 0.5 values of Fe-Dy, Dy-Nd, and Nd-Co are 0.35, 0.79, and 2.49, respectively. It is better to remove Fe 3+ by selective leaching and precipitation before Dy, Nd, and Co recovery and separation. 98% of Dy 3+ is recovered after four-stage counter-current extraction at A/O = 1:2 and equilibrium pH = 2.52. Keywords: Finite difference method; Kinetics; Hydrogen decrepitation; NdFeB alloys; Diffusion 1. Introduction Sv (V ) expansion due to decrepitation results in a five orders of magnitude higher rate of hydrogen diffusion into The most popular recent application of hydrogen in the Nd–Fe–B alloy than into a theoretical bulk sample of that ...big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …May 1, 2023 · The hydrogen absorbed by the whole alloy and, in particular, by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase decreases with temperature. Below 150 °C, the hydrogen absorbed by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase produces a significant transgranular cracking that is undesirable for particle shape. At 300 °C, the fast and limited absorption of hydrogen by the Nd-rich phase ... An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) is a suitable method for recycling sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained from electronic scrap into a coercive powder [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ... Anisotropic ...The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density …Hydrogen Decrepitation is a known process for breaking rare earth alloys such as NdFeB into powder, as described by Zakotnik et al. (“Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of Sintered NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets”, Proceedings of 19 th International Workshop on Rare Earth Permanent Magnets & Their Applications; pp 289-295).A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …Introduction. In the fields of sintered magnets, the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) technique has been widely used. The as-melted NdFeB bulk material becomes brittle after HD and decrepitates into powders, as a result of the large volume expansion of the lattice of both the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix and the intergranular Nd-rich phase [1]. Hydrogen …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. As starting materials, magnets of different grades were used, which were processed by hydrogen decrepitation and blending the powder with NdH x. Composition inhomogeneity in the Nd 2 Fe 14 B-based magnetic phase grains in the recycled magnets and the existence of a core-shell structure consisting of a Nd-rich (Dy-depleted) core and …Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...This means that NdFeB magnets are prone to galvanic corrosion, in particular, intergranular corrosion attack. The corrosion mechanism as well as the hydrogen decrepitation behaviour of microcrystalline (i.e. sintered) magnets has been studied extensively [11], [12], [13], [14].The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …This work could have implications with regard to the mechanism of hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets during the well-established recycling process described by Walton et al. [19] and [20]. During this process, scrap sintered NdFeB magnets are damaged in air to expose a clean surface suitable for hydrogen decrepitation. …Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ...Feb 9, 2023 · Abstract The process of hydrogen decrepitation of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy in wide temperature and pressure ranges has been studied. The choices of the chemical composition of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy and the method of production of the initial alloy based on out-of-furnace calcium–thermal reduction are substantiated. The introduction of dysprosium into the alloy ... The use of 3-D laser confocal microscopy to visualise hydrogen interactions in-sit; The use of hydrogen decrepitation to extract NdFeB magnets from electronic assemblies; In-situ removal of magnets from large magnetic assemblies using hydrogen; Corrosion protection for NdFeB magnets; Recycling of rare earth magnets; Strip casting …Hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics for high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered bulk magnets were studied, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement and hydrogenation kinetics measurement. The DSC measurements showed that hydrogenation of Nd-rich phase occurred in the temperature range of …During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an …Jul 1, 2002 · The effective diffusivity of hydrogen in NdFeB magnets is reduced with Co and Ga additions and as a result of the texture induced in the microstructure via die-upsetting process. In addition to the results shown in Fig. 8 , the thermal desorption behaviour related to the hydrogenation of a die-upset MQU-G magnet is different for the two ... magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In thisThe Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [ 1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature.magnets from electrical and electronic equipment. These materials are then processed using hydrogen decrepitation to transform the NdFeB magnets into a hydrogenated powder. This powder can then be extracted mechanically from the obsolete devices, and can then be processed further to produce either sintered or bonded rare earth magnets. Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by …Aug 4, 2022 · Here, we describe a room temperature, electrolytic decrepitation process applied to sintered Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnet fragments taken from end-of-life computer hard disk drives. In this process, fine grain, Nd-magnet-hydride powder is rapidly produced by atomic hydrogen in a 2 M KOH electrolyte. The influence of the alloy granulation grade, temperature and surface oxidation on the kinetics and the course of the fracture processes during the hydrogenation of Nd16−xDyxFe76B8 (x=0–3) alloy was studied. The average particle sizes of the alloy were 1 mm, 5 mm and 3 cm and the temperature range between 20 and 200 °C. Pre-oxidation …High performance NdFeB permanent magnets are widely manufactured using the conventional powder metallurgy route involving distinct steps: alloy synthesis by strip casting, pulverization by hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, shaping by compaction and sintering followed by annealing [32]. Every step of this manufacturing process has …We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets. Miha Zakotnik, E. Devlin, +1 author. A. Williams. Published 2006. Materials Science, Engineering. Journal of Iron and Steel Research International. View via Publisher. Save to Library.The reaction speed in the typical hydrogenation run (Fig. 1b, 1d) is limited only by the rate of the gas diffusion into the sample.When the reaction proceeds in deficiency of hydrogen (Fig. 1b) only a part of the Nd transforms into neodymium hydride NdH y as it follows from the diffraction pattern displayed in Fig. 2d.That pattern includes …The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand.The nature of hydrogen decrepitation when applied to a cast Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy has been studied by following the microstructural changes on polished surfaces of the material exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 4 bar. The milling of the material decrepitated at a pressure of 10 bar has also been studied by determining …May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …Absorption and desorption of hydrogen by the permanent magnet material Nd 2 Fe 1 4 B have been studied using a microcomputer‐controlled, thermomanometric analyzer with an initial hydrogen pressure of approximately 1 bar. Primary absorption occurs in the range 200–300 °C and results in the formation of a stable hydride with …Dec 25, 2017 · Recycling of Nd-Fe-B magnets is one of the few solutions to alleviate the supply risks of certain rare earth elements (REE) such as Nd and Dy. One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized hydrogenated powder. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50-300°C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by ...As starting materials, magnets of different grades were used, which were processed by hydrogen decrepitation and blending the powder with NdH x. Composition inhomogeneity in the Nd 2 Fe 14 B-based magnetic phase grains in the recycled magnets and the existence of a core-shell structure consisting of a Nd-rich (Dy-depleted) core and …Feb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. (DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} and stoichiometric composition Nd{sub 11.8}Fe{sub 82.3}B{sub 5.9} have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. ... The procedure …The reactions and phase changes occurring during sintering of NdFeB permanent magnet alloys were studied by differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The powders were produced by hydrogen decrepitation and on heating, hydrogen evolution occurred in two stages: firstly from the matrix phase (∼170 °C) and …The obtained strips were pulverized and further milled into ∼5 μm powder using hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, respectively. These powders were pressed in a magnetic field of 1.8 T under a pressure of 8.0 MPa. Afterward, the green compacts were sintered at 1070°C for 3 h in vacuum, cooled by Ar quenching. ... NdFeB sintered …The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen …Nov 1, 2017 · Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly and some powder ... Absorption and desorption of hydrogen by the permanent magnet material Nd 2 Fe 1 4 B have been studied using a microcomputer‐controlled, thermomanometric analyzer with an initial hydrogen pressure of approximately 1 bar. Primary absorption occurs in the range 200–300 °C and results in the formation of a stable hydride with …The initial step for manufacturing NdFeB plated permanent magnets in this unit process is NdFeB alloying and strip casting. NdFeB alloy is composed of 72% iron, 27% neodymium, and 1% boron from boron carbide (Sprecher et al., 2014). In order to stop free iron from forming, a small amount of iron formed between NdFeB crystals, the alloy is ...Aug 4, 2022 · One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized... Michihide Nakamura, Masashi Matsuura, Nobuki Tezuka, Satoshi Sugimoto, Yasuhiro Une, Hirokazu Kubo, Masato Sagawa; Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination and hydrogen …The rapid cooling of the strip flakes suppresses the growth of soft α-Fe branch crystal grains. The thickness of the strip flakes was about 0.25–0.35 mm. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which uses the expansion of hydrogen to break up the flakes, was followed by milling in a jet mill (JM). The particles were then accelerated to supersonic ...The application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = …Sep 7, 2022 · We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of decommissioned magnets and the magnetic properties of the consolidated magnets. First experiments have been carried out with a commercial powder to make clear the mechanisms occurring during the powder densification. The magnetic properties of ... Introduction. In the fields of sintered magnets, the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) technique has been widely used. The as-melted NdFeB bulk material becomes brittle after HD and decrepitates into powders, as a result of the large volume expansion of the lattice of both the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix and the intergranular Nd-rich phase [1]. 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Jul 1, 2002 · The effective diffusivity of hydrogen in NdFeB magnets is reduced with Co and Ga additions and as a result of the texture induced in the microstructure via die-upsetting process. In addition to the results shown in Fig. 8 , the thermal desorption behaviour related to the hydrogenation of a die-upset MQU-G magnet is different for the two ... . Wso.suspected

ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpegjak sie przygotowac do budowy domu

Mar 1, 2019 · Fig. 1 shows the hydrogen decrepitation curves of Nd-Fe-B SC and SM at 288 K with different initial hydrogen pressure. Under the initial hydrogen pressure of 0.1–1 Mpa, the HD process composes of four stages of magnets surface activation, slow hydrogenation of Nd-rich grain boundary phase, quick hydrogenation of Nd 2 Fe 14 B main phase grains, and slow hydrogenation of inner part of the magnets. Nov 14, 2017 · Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 m in size. In this paper, the hydrogen processing of scrap magnets has been demonstrated as an extraction method for NdFeB from automotive rotors for the first time, with the aim to …Nov 15, 1988 · A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. A high performance sintered NdFeB magnet with N52 was prepared by strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling, rubber isostatic pressing with impulse magnetic field and vibrating. The structure of the magnet was investigated by XRD, optical microscope, TEM and SEM, and its demagnetization curve was tested by magnetograph. The results …We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …H 2 can be used to extract NdFeB magnets from the automotive scrap, however, many challenges in the recycling are presented.. The importance of design choices, having negative impact on the recycling, are investigated in this work, so can be avoided. • Higher Dy additions slow down the kinetics of the hydrogen decrepitation …An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - …Oct 30, 2018 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen pressure, and the temperature on the hydrogen absorption are discussed. The ... A production-scale plant in Germany planned to go onstream in 2024 and a pilot plant launched a few months ago in the UK, expected to graduate to production-scale in 2023, are using the hydrogen-enabled process in efforts to commercialize it. At the center of both efforts is HyProMag Limited, closely tied to the University of Birmingham and an ...NdFeB-based alloys and magnets also react readily with hydrogen, and this has been exploited by the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process [4]. During HD the material is exposed to hydrogen (at room temperature) and initially the Nd-rich phase absorbs hydrogen (represented approximately by Eq.magnets from electrical and electronic equipment. These materials are then processed using hydrogen decrepitation to transform the NdFeB magnets into a hydrogenated powder. This powder can then be extracted mechanically from the obsolete devices, and can then be processed further to produce either sintered or bonded rare earth magnets. The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …Jan 1, 2006 · In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce permanent magnets. This paper studied the corrosion behavior of c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces in sintered (Ce 0.15 Nd 0.85) 30 Fe bal B magnets. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of RE-rich phase is improved after Ce substitution compared with the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the value of A0 / A1 is approximate for both c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces.Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …calcium [12] and hydrogen decrepitation [1,13-19]. Many of these are under current development. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of …Hydrogen is already used to process cast NdFeB in the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process. The HD process is used extensively to reduce bulk (or strip) cast NdFeB ingots to friable, hydrogenated NdFeB granules/powder, prior to the production of jet milled powder which is then aligned, compressed and sintered to form fully dense …T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The Use of Hydrogen to Separate and Recycle Neodymium-Iron-Boron-type Magnets from Electronic Waste A. Walton a, Han Yi , N.A. Rowson b, J.D. Speight , V.S.J. Mann a, R.S. Sheridan , A. Bradshaw a, I.R. Harris a, A.J. Williams School of Metallurgy and Materials a and School of Chemical Engineering b, …Electrolytic Hydrogen Decrepitation of NdFeB Magnets Under Ambient Conditions. V. Kaplan, Y. Feldman, …, I. Lubomirsky. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy • Volume 8, Issue 3 • 1 September 2022. 1 citation; Scopus record. Article. 2D Pb-Halide Perovskites Can Self-Heal Photodamage Better than 3D Ones.Jan 1, 2006 · Several recycling methods for NdFeB magnets have been developed, such as direct reuse,4 hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and regeneration of new NdFeB,5–7 pyrometallurgical methods,8,9 hydrometallurgical methods,10–13 gas-phase extraction. Direct reuse is only suitable for large magnets, such as those used for wind turbines, electric motors, and ... The fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets is composed of quite a few processes mainly including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet-milling, magnetic alignment and pressing, sintering and subsequent heat treatment, machining, and surface coating. ... Possible methods of recycling NdFeB-type sintered magnets using the …Feb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. Jul 8, 2020 · The application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = 830 kA/m ... Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaksThe hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4].A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16] .Jul 8, 2020 · The application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = 830 kA/m ... The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16] .Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ...An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines.Feb 5, 2009 · Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density and in ... The corrosion and degradation of sintered Nd–Fe–B type magnets by hydrogen obtained from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. The residual hydrogen from the hydrogen decrepitation process in the manufacture of fully dense magnets is desorbed completely during the vacuum sintering …The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16] .NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ... A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both Nd-Fe-B (Neomax) alloys and the ND-Dy-Fe-Nb-B high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent coercivities when …Another example of the coercivity recovery in crushed NdFeB-type sintered magnets was made by adding the DyF 3 salt [8]. Furthermore, the production of anisotropic RE–Fe–B–Cu powders have also been produced by hydrogen decrepitation of hot deformed ingots [9] followed by degassing.Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ... The Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase is the main component of sintered NdFeB magnets. The ternary NdFeB phase diagram (Fig. 5.1(a)) shows that there are five phases in addition to the Nd 2 Fe 14 B (T1) phase: Fe, Nd 2 Fe 17, Nd 5 Fe 17, Nd 1.1 Fe 4 B 4 (T2), and Nd.Sintered NdFeB magnets are produced by the liquid phase sintering process and the …May 5, 2017 · Typically, alloys are processed using the Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) [5], [6] where the cast NdFeB alloys are exposed to hydrogen at room temperature causing them to react exothermically, and consequently, decrepitating into a highly friable powder which can then be jet-milled, aligned, compressed and liquid phase sintered to form a ... Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. HD process was originally designed and patented by Harris et al. (1979) as a way to break down SmCo and Sm 2(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr) alloys. 5 17.0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …The obtained strips were pulverized and further milled into ∼5 μm powder using hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, respectively. These powders were pressed in a magnetic field of 1.8 T under a pressure of 8.0 MPa. Afterward, the green compacts were sintered at 1070°C for 3 h in vacuum, cooled by Ar quenching. ... NdFeB sintered …NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), and can be …High performance NdFeB permanent magnets are widely manufactured using the conventional powder metallurgy route involving distinct steps: alloy synthesis by strip casting, pulverization by hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, shaping by compaction and sintering followed by annealing [32]. Every step of this manufacturing process has …The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16].In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. Nov 15, 2021 · After the hydrogen decrepitation process, the powders were pulverized by either He-jet milling or N 2-jet milling, obtaining a powder with a particle size of ~0.8 µm for the HDDR processed and He-jet milled sample, ~1.0 µm for the He-jet milled sample, and ~3.0 µm for the N 2-jet milled sample. May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into …Mar 1, 2019 · Fig. 1 shows the hydrogen decrepitation curves of Nd-Fe-B SC and SM at 288 K with different initial hydrogen pressure. Under the initial hydrogen pressure of 0.1–1 Mpa, the HD process composes of four stages of magnets surface activation, slow hydrogenation of Nd-rich grain boundary phase, quick hydrogenation of Nd 2 Fe 14 B main phase grains, and slow hydrogenation of inner part of the magnets. The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …NdFeB-based alloys and magnets also react readily with hydrogen, and this has been exploited by the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process [4]. During HD the material is exposed to hydrogen (at room temperature) and initially the Nd-rich phase absorbs hydrogen (represented approximately by Eq.Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. Feb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …The initial step for manufacturing NdFeB plated permanent magnets in this unit process is NdFeB alloying and strip casting. NdFeB alloy is composed of 72% iron, 27% neodymium, and 1% boron from boron carbide (Sprecher et al., 2014). In order to stop free iron from forming, a small amount of iron formed between NdFeB crystals, the alloy is ...The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …The nature of hydrogen decrepitation when applied to a cast Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy has been studied by following the microstructural changes on polished surfaces of the material exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 4 bar. The milling of the material decrepitated at a pressure of 10 bar has also been studied by determining …The high- and standard-grade material can be processed using either an HD/HDDR process or a sintering process, both of which are being tested in the course of this project. HD/HDDR stands for hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogen-disproportionation decomposition-recombination (HDDR). The HD/HDDR pulverised …NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), and can be …Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ...Mar 1, 1985 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the alignment, which can ... Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ...Jul 1, 2019 · Recycling of scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets as anisotropic bonded magnets via hydrogen decrepitation process. The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by…. So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …A bulk ingot of a Nd-Fe-B alloy has been powdered by a combination of hydrogen decrepitation and attritor milling. The powder was aligned and pressed in the hydrided condition and the green compact sintered at 1080‡ C for 1 h after an appropriate heating rate. Excellent densities were achieved after this procedure and the magnets produced …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. 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